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Source: PLOS - Open Science


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Articles from this source (11)

Carbon opportunity cost increases carbon footprint advantage of grain-finished beef

  2023-12-15 (or before) in PLOS - Open Science

Beef production accounts for the largest share of global livestock greenhouse gas emissions and is an important target for climate mitigation efforts. Most life-cycle assessments comparing the carbon footprint of beef production systems have been limited to production emissions. None also consider potential carbon sequestration due to grazing and alternate uses of land used for production. We assess the carbon footprint of 100 beef production systems in 16 countries, including production emissions, soil carbon sequestration from grazing, and carbon opportunity cost—the potential carbon sequestration that could occur on lan...

  Tagged under: Cattle and Dairy Farming | Climate Change Mitigation | Sustainability


Income-based U.S. household carbon footprints (1990–2019) offer new insights on emissions inequality and climate finance

  2023-08-30 (or before) in PLOS - Open Science

Current policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increase adaptation and mitigation funding are insufficient to limit global temperature rise to 1.5°C. It is clear that further action is needed to avoid the worst impacts of climate change and achieve a just climate future. Here, we offer a new perspective on emissions responsibility and climate finance by conducting an environmentally extended input output analysis that links 30 years (1990–2019) of United States (U.S.) household-level income data to the emissions generated in creating that income. To do this we draw on over 2.8 billion inter-sectoral tran...

  Tagged under: Climate Change | Economics | Health | Climate Change Impacts | Climate Change Mitigation | Finance


Prioritization of carceral spending in U.S. cities: Development of the Carceral Resource Index (CRI) and the role of race and income inequality

  2022-12-22 (or before) in PLOS - Open Science

Background Policing, corrections, and other carceral institutions are under scrutiny for driving health harms, while receiving disproportionate resources at the expense of prevention and other services. Amidst renewed interest in structural determinants of health, roles of race and class in shaping government investment priorities are poorly understood. Methods Based on the Social Conflict Model, we assessed relationships between city racial/ economic profiles measured by the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE) and budgetary priorities measured by the novel Carceral Resource Index (CRI), contrasting investments in car...

  Tagged under: Economics | Housing | Health


A dynamic model of nonviolent resistance strategy

  2022-08-08 (or before) in PLOS - Open Science

Why have some nonviolent revolutions succeeded even with modest participation numbers, while others have failed despite massive mobilization? We develop an agent-based model that predicts the outcomes of three well-known activism strategies. The first rapidly recruits a wide number of activists, which overwhelms the opponent’s support network and encourages large-scale defections. In the second, activists who have already mobilized remain committed to success and inspire other civilians to protest even when they are unable to protest themselves. In the third strategy, campaigns focus their energy and influence directly on ...

  Tagged under: Activism | Predictions | Finance


Seagrass on the brink: Decline of threatened seagrass Posidonia australis continues following protection

  2022-07-19 (or before) in PLOS - Open Science

Seagrasses are in decline globally due to sustained pressure from coastal development, water quality declines and the ongoing threat from climate change. The result of this decline has been a change in coastal productivity, a reduction in critical fisheries habitat and increased erosion. Attempts to slow this decline have included legislative protection of habitat and direct restoration efforts. Monitoring the success of these approaches requires tracking changes in the abundance of seagrasses, but such monitoring is frequently conducted at either too coarse a spatial scale, or too infrequently to adequately detect changes withi...

  Tagged under: Climate Change | Fish | Sea Level | Climate Change Impacts


The clean energy claims of BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil and Shell: A mismatch between discourse, actions and investments

  2022-05-02 (or before) in PLOS - Open Science

The energy products of oil and gas majors have contributed significantly to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and planetary warming over the past century. Decarbonizing the global economy by mid-century to avoid dangerous climate change thus cannot occur without a profound transformation of their fossil fuel-based business models. Recently, several majors are increasingly discussing clean energy and climate change, pledging decarbonization strategies, and investing in alternative energies. Some even claim to be transforming into clean energy companies. Given a history of obstructive climate actions and “greenwashing&rd...

  Tagged under: BP | Shell | Exxon | Greenhouse Gases | Climate Change | Chevron | Fossil Fuels | Finance


Global expansion and redistribution of Aedes-borne virus transmission risk with climate change

  2022-02-28 (or before) in PLOS - Open Science

Author summary The established scientific consensus indicates that climate change will severely exacerbate the risk and burden of Aedes-transmitted viruses, including dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and other significant threats to global health security. Here, we show more subtle impacts of climate change on transmission, caused primarily by differences between the more heat-tolerant Aedes aegypti and the more heat-limited Ae. albopictus. Within the next century, nearly a billion people could face their first exposure to viral transmission from either mosquito in the worst-case scenario, mainly in Europe and high-elevation tropical ...

  Tagged under: Africa | Climate Change | Health | Climate Change Mitigation | Climate Change Impacts


The recent normalization of historical marine heat extremes

  2022-02-01 (or before) in PLOS - Open Science

Climate change exposes marine ecosystems to extreme conditions with increasing frequency. Capitalizing on the global reconstruction of sea surface temperature (SST) records from 1870-present, we present a centennial-scale index of extreme marine heat within a coherent and comparable statistical framework. A spatially (1° × 1°) and temporally (monthly) resolved index of the normalized historical extreme marine heat events was expressed as a fraction of a year that exceeds a locally determined, monthly varying 98th percentile of SST gradients derived from the first 50 years of climatological records (1870–1919)...

  Tagged under: Oceans | Extreme Weather | Climate Change


Happy without money: Minimally monetized societies can exhibit high subjective well-being

  2021-12-16 (or before) in PLOS - Open Science

Economic growth is often assumed to improve happiness for people in low income countries, although the association between monetary income and subjective well-being has been a subject of debate. We test this assumption by comparing three different measures of subjective well-being in very low-income communities with different levels of monetization. Contrary to expectations, all three measures of subjective well-being were very high in the least-monetized sites and comparable to those found among citizens of wealthy nations. The reported drivers of happiness shifted with increasing monetization: from enjoying experiential activi...

  Tagged under: Economic Growth


Past world economic production constrains current energy demands: Persistent scaling with implications for economic growth and climate change mitigation

  2021-08-08 (or before) in PLOS - Open Science

Climate change has become intertwined with the global economy. Here, we describe the contribution of inertia to future trends. Drawing from thermodynamic principles, and using 38 years of available statistics between 1980 to 2017, we find a constant scaling between current rates of world primary energy consumption E ( t ) and the historical time integral W of past world inflation-adjusted economic production Y, or W ( t ) = ∫ 0 t Y ( t ′ ) d t ′. In each year, over a period during which both E and W more than doubled, the ratio of the two remained nearly unchanged, that is λ = E ( t ) ( t ) / W ( t ) = 5 ....

  Tagged under: Renewable Energy | Nuclear Power | Predictions | Climate Change | Economics | Fossil Fuels | Economic Growth | Climate Change Mitigation


Approximate calculations of the net economic impact of global warming mitigation targets under heightened damage estimates

  2020-10-09 (or before) in PLOS - Open Science

Efforts to mitigate global warming are often justified through calculations of the economic damages that may occur absent mitigation. The earliest such damage estimates were speculative mathematical representations, but some more recent studies provide empirical estimates of damages on economic growth that accumulate over time and result in larger damages than those estimated previously. These heightened damage estimates have been used to suggest that limiting global warming this century to 1.5 °C avoids tens of trillions of 2010 US$ in damage to gross world product relative to limiting global warming to 2.0 °C. However,...

  Tagged under: Greenhouse Gases | Climate Change | Economics | Economic Growth | Climate Change Mitigation


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